Vintage/Retired GS badges and memorabilia
Flower – Do all starred.
Triangle – Do 6 requirements including starred.
Circle – Do 8 Requirements including starred.
Rectangle – Do all requirements including starred.
1*. Describe at least five reasons why it is important for people to learn about the oceans.
2*. Density is a measure of how tightly a certain amount of ‘stuff’ is packed into a given volume. The more ‘stuff’ that is packed in, the higher the density. Water density changes with salinity. Freshwater is made up of hydrogen and oxygen. When salt is dissolved in water, sodium and chlorine atoms link to the hydrogen and oxygen molecules. More ‘stuff’ is packed in, so the saltwater is denser. The greater the density of water, the easier it is for something to float in it. Girls can experiment with salinity and density by seeing how much salt it will take to float a fresh egg.
What you need:
3 raw eggs, salt, hot water, 3 clear containers, 3 tablespoons
What to do:
Mark a clean container ‘no salt’, another container 3 tablespoons salt and the last container 6 tablespoons salt.
Fill each container with hot water.
Add the appropriate amount of salt to each container.
Stir to dissolve.
Allow the water to cool.
Place one egg into each container.
Observe what happens.
If the egg does not float, try adding more salt to the water.
3. Do the following:
1. Describe the characteristics of ocean waves.
2. Discuss the circulation and currents of the ocean.
3. Point out the differences of the storm surge, tsunami, tidal wave, and tidal bore.
4. Explain the difference between sea, swell, and surf.
5. Explain how breakers are formed.
4*. Define Continental Shelf, Continental Slope, The Abyss, The Epipelagic Zone, The Mesopelagic Zone, The Bathypelagic Zone, The Abyssopelagic Zone, and The Hadalpelagic Zone.
Now make your own Ocean Zones in a Jar. You will need a clean, clear quart size jar, liquid food coloring and oil paste food coloring, corn syrup, oil, dish soap, water, rubbing alcohol, a 1 Cup measuring cup and funnels. You’ll pour ¾ cup of each liquid into your glass jar for each ocean layer (or less for a smaller jar).
1. Add black food coloring to ¾ cup of corn syrup and pour into the bottom of your glass jar.
2. Pour ¾ of a cup of dish soap and add it to the jar, on top of the black corn syrup, using a funnel.
3. Put blue food coloring into ¾ of a cup of water. Use a funnel to slowly and carefully layer it on top of the dish soap.
4. Next, you’ll add your oil. Put blue oil paste food coloring into ¾ of a cup of water. Use a funnel to slowly and carefully layer it on top of the water.
5. Finally, you will add ¾ of a cup of rubbing alcohol. You’ll want to use a dropper to slowly add it to the top of the oil, making sure not to break the barrier between the oil and water.
Add some labels and put in front of a light source to see the layers best!
5. Do the following:
1. List the main salts, gases, and nutrients in sea water.
2. Describe some important properties of water.
3. Tell how the animals and plants of the ocean affect the chemical composition of seawater.
4. Explain how differences in evaporation and precipitation affect the salt content of the oceans.
6. Beneath the waves, you can find both the beautiful and the bizarre. The coral reef is one of the Earth’s most diverse environments. There are thousands of unique species inhabiting an ecosystem that has been called the rainforest of the sea. Down in the depths lies an eerie world of cold darkness with extremes of both temperature and pressure. Grotesque alien like creatures that patrol the darkness, illuminating the way with artificial lights produced within their own bodies. Let’s take a look at the creatures that make their home in the world's coral reefs.
Create a master piece of a coral reef showing sponges and sea squirts, corals and anemones, sea worms, echinoderms, crustaceans and mollusks, the endless variety of coral reef fishes and unusual reef fishes, sharks and rays, marine reptiles and marine mammals. Make sure to include the water depths and zone that each can be found at.
7. Can you match all of these marine images in the gallery below?
8. Describe four methods that marine scientists use to investigate the ocean, underlying geology, and organisms living in the water.
9*. An explosion on April 20, 2010, on an oil drilling platform in the Gulf of Mexico set off what scientists think may be the worst environmental disaster we have ever faced in the United States. Even after the leak was stopped, the effects of the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico are expected to continue for years or even decades and continue to kill sea animals, plants and birds.
Oil is a fossil fuel. Fossil fuels were made from fossils, or the remains of animals and plants that lived hundreds of millions of years ago. When ancient animals and
plants died, they became buried underground and crushed by heat and pressure for millions of years. This turned them into liquid or gas.
Oil and water don’t mix. If you’ve ever seen pictures of thick oil in the water, you may wonder why it doesn’t sink in the ocean. Oil is less dense, or has less weight for a certain amount, than water. Experts say tiny bits of oil naturally seep into the ocean all the time. Microbes, microscopic life-forms, living in the ocean break down these little bits of oil. But microbes are overwhelmed by big oil spills.
Experts say the poisonous oil gets through the thin outer surface, called the membrane, of fish eggs. Fish breathe oxygen through their gills and the sticky oil
clogs their gills and makes it impossible for them to breathe.
Brown pelicans dive into the ocean to catch fish. When they dive through the oil, it coats their feathers. Pelicans and gulls try to preen, or clean their feathers, but end up swallowing the oil. In the nest, oil may rub off their feathers onto their eggs, poisoning them. Birds also may die of hypothermia, or becoming too cold, because their oil-soaked feathers can’t insulate them from the cold ocean water.
When many animals die, it affects the food chain. Larger fish, birds or other animals may starve without smaller fish to feed on.
Use the Internet to learn how people have handled other oil spills. Draw a picture of people helping animals in the oil spill.
10. Using resources found at the library and in periodicals, books, and the Internet, learn about different professional positions available in ocean study. Select a profession from the list provided or find your own ocean related profession to research.
Scientists; geologists; biologists; ecologists; physiologists; archaeologists; commercial divers perform wreck surveys; submarine rescue operations; welding and cutting operations on pipelines, bridges, and platforms; the inspections of piers, platforms, breakwaters, dams, nuclear power plants, and sewer discharge lines. You could also salvage valuable or polluting cargo from sunken ships.
Find out the education and training requirements for the position you choose.