Vintage/Retired GS badges and memorabilia
All scientists, whether they are male or female, need to be good observers. Practice your observation skills by completing an observation puzzle. Complete a puzzle with two similar pictures, but really they have 5-10 differences.
2. Scientific Method
The scientific method is a very important aspect of science. All scientists use the scientific method if they want to solve an experiment. The method has five basic steps: Problem/question you are trying to solve, hypothesis, design the experiment, do the experiment, and conclusion. Memorize, understand, and use the five steps of the Scientific Method.
3. Biology, the study of life
Virginia Agpar was a scientist who majored in biology and became a doctor. In 1952, Dr. Agpar created a test given to newborns to see if they are healthy. The Agpar test checks the baby’s color, heart rate, reflex, muscle tone, and respiratory effort. Learn more about Dr. Agpar and her procedure. Create stations or a relay race to test each aspect of her test on everyone in your troop.
Inventing a new cosmetic isn’t easy. Hazel Bishop, a woman who created smear-proof lipstick, explained how creating cosmetics actually involves a lot of science, especially chemistry. Learn about Hazel Bishop and find out how to make your own perfume. It is important that you learn chemistry terms like solution, solute, and solvent. As you make your perfume, indicate which materials are a solvent, solute, and solution.
5. Acids & Bases
Acids, bases, and the pH scale are all very important aspects of chemistry, as well as in other areas of science. Food Scientists, like Allene Rosalind Jeanes, have to know a lot about acids and bases, and have to be able to determine if something is an acid or a base. Learn more about Allene Rosalind Jeanes and pretend you are a food scientist and have to determine if five products are acids or bases. You can test household items like lemon juice, soda, vinegar, baking soda, and ammonia. Create an experiment using an indicator that changes color when mixed with an acidic or basic substance. You can make an indicator out of cabbage juice. With the help of an adult, cut up red cabbage and put in a big cooking pot. Cover the cabbage with water and boil a half an hour. Let it cool, drain the cabbage out, and it is ready to be an indicator. Just add water to the items you are testing and the indicator, and see what happens.
6. Solar Cooking
Have you every cooked outside, but without using a fire or barbeque? Dr. Maria Telkes, a woman who was an inventor in solar energy, created a solar oven. You could cook with the solar oven just using the heat of the sun. Learn more about Dr. Maria Telkes and create a solar oven. They are simple to make and you can make one out of a recycled pizza box. After you make your oven, bake or cook something with your troop or group.
Physics is the science of matter and energy and the interactions between the two. Madame Marie Curie is one of the most famous female scientists, and physicists. Learn more about Marie Curie and do a simple physics experiment. As you do your project use the scientific method and learn some physics terms like friction, kinetic energy, and potential energy. Here is one physics experiment you can try using a tennis ball, a rubber ball, and a bowl of water.
8. Gelotology, the science of laughter.
Gelotology, a fairly new branch of science, is the psychological study of laughter and gelotologists, the people who study it, discovered that it is actually healthy to laugh. Laughing makes people happier, and can relieve stress, and can boost the immune system. Learn about Jo-Anne Bachorowski, a gelotologist, and perform a science experiment to see if laughing really makes you feel better. To do the experiment, first record your current emotion. Next have someone read you five funny jokes, and be sure to laugh after hearing the jokes. If you cannot get yourself to laugh during the jokes have someone tickle you with a feather. Finally record your emotions after just laughing. Also, make someone else laugh. To do this, design a card with a joke on it and decorate it. Give the card to someone who you think needs a good laugh.
Meteorology is the study of the Earth’s atmosphere. Learn about Caterina Scarpellini, a woman who greatly contributed to meteorology, and learn even more about the atmosphere by learning how clouds develop. Clouds form when hot air mixes with cool air. Form your own cloud by doing this experiment. First, you will need a plastic bowl or container, plastic wrap, ice cubes, boiling water, and a cup with a spout. Cover the bowl with plastic wrap, and place ice cubes on top (this represents the cold air high above us). Quickly and carefully, using the cup with a spout, add the boiling water to the bowl by moving a bit of the plastic wrap (this represents the water on the Earth that gets heated by the sun). Within minutes the hot water vapor will reach the ice cubes causing a cloud to form. Once the ice melts due to the heat below it, you can even see it rain.